You can earn these colorful tokens for free during the Weekly event (Book Fair). They are included in some of the rewards that you get by completing the requirements shown in the tasks list. 
There is one color available for each Study type. You can check them and get more information about them by tapping on the Cart button and then on the Token one. There you can also buy some extra tokens paying by gems if you want.
You can use them in certain final object upgrades in your Faculties.
If you still cannot see upgrades with these requirements, don't worry! You will be able to see it in future buildings.